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Durham, London, Somerset, Hants, Surrey, East and West Sussex, Wilts, and the North and West Ridings of York. Five of these counties require that the scale of fees in force shall be submitted for approval to the technical instruction committee. Devon and Somerset prohibit the imposition of extra fees for any technical subjects, and Somerset provides that no aid is to be given to schools with fees of more than 10l. a year.
The Durham County Council requires schools which charge more than 107. to receive its scholarship holders for a sum not exceeding 127., inclusive of books and stationery. It also refuses its aid to schools charging prohibitive fees, or to schools whose total revenue, both from fees and endowments, is high in proportion to the average attendance.
The London County Council withholds aid from schools charging more than 107. a year, it has, however, made a few exceptions to this rule, as in the case of St. Dunstan's, Catford Bridge.
In the North Riding of York, the maximum fee which may be charged in schools desiring aid is 87. a year.
(f) Other Conditions.
The principal conditions imposed by county councils, and not already enumerated under the above heads, are those which relate to rendering of accounts, and the use to be made of laboratories and apparatus provided out of the grants.
As the rendering of accounts is provided for by the Technical Instruction Act, only six counties have thought fit to repeat this proviso in their own local regulations. In two or three cases, registers of attendance and reports on the technical and manual instruction given are also required. The county of Surrey provides that monthly attendance and annual "progress" reports of all scholarship holders be sent to the organising secretary.
In eight counties some regulation exists as to the use of rooms and apparatus. In Cheshire, the technical instruction committee requires that the school buildings generally, and where they exist, the workshops belonging to the school, shall be open for technical instruction on such evenings as the committee may require them.
In Cumberland, Derby, and Hertford, laboratories and science lecture rooms, must be open for public evening classes free of charge, and in Northumberland, the teachers must also be ready to place their services at the disposal of the committee.
In Surrey, any school receiving aid must be available for county council scholarship examinations without any charge except for expenses.
The Essex County Council has not yet laid down any general conditions under which aid can be given to secondary schools. It has, however, given grants to five schools under conditions which vary slightly according to the needs and circumstances of the
respective schools. Generally speaking, these conditions are as follows:
(1.) That the school shall be open to a certain number of county scholars on payment of half the usual fees, and that the boarding fee for such scholars shall not exceed 361. in addition to tuition fees.
() That efficient science teaching be given, and additional science teachers appointed if necessary.
(3) That the schools shall be available for county council scholarship examinations, to be undertaken by the school staff free of charge.
(4.) That lectures and demonstrations be given at the schools, free of charge, as may be required by the technical instruction committee, to such students as the council may arrange to send.
(5.) That the schools be open for such evening classes, on technical subjects, as may be arranged by the technical instruction committee.
Principles upon which Payment of Grants is made.
The two considerations upon which county council grants to secondary schools are chiefly determined appear to be the capitation principle and the consideration of each case on its merits. Some counties, Norfolk, for instance, distinguish between annual and capital grants, and pay the former on the principle of capitation, but give separate consideration to each case when the question of capital grants is raised.
Counties which adopt the capitation basis generally fix some limitations as to the amounts payable. In Somerset the minimum grant is 1007., and the maximum grant such that the total income of the school from all sources does not exceed 10. a pupil. Derbyshire grants a maximum sum of 30s. a head on every scholar doing not less than seven hours' work a week.
In the greater number of cases, however, county grants are given strictly on the merits of each application. The Surrey County Council takes into account, in making grants, the character and population of the district, local contributions, poverty of endowment, and the class of children attending the school in question. The technical education board of the London County Council "came reluctantly to the conclusion that is was impos"sible to devise any automatic system for the determination of the "amount of aid to be given to each school, and that the only way "to deal effectually with the question was to consider cach case 66 on its merits. This method has been the sole one "adopted in making grants to secondary schools." In the West Riding of Yorkshire the scale of grants for secondary schools is
at present in abeyance, pending the consideration of the subsitution of a fixed annual grant for the former system of capitation and subject grants. The technical instruction committee proposes to give these fixed grants to certain schools on condition that a specified number of free studentships at these schools shall be placed at the disposal of the council. A list of 15 schools has already been drawn up by the committee, to which it is proposed that fixed grants of an average annual value of 3221. 68. 8d. shall be given.
Conditions on which Aid is given to Secondary Schools-B. By County Boroughs.
The number of County Boroughs which, up to the present time, have made grants in aid of secondary schools is very small, being only 12 out of a total number of 61, viz., Bristol, Chester, Huddersfield, Hull, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle St. Helens, Sheffield, Southampton, Stockport, and Walsall. Leeds also gives aid to secondary schools, but no conditions appear to be attached beyond representation on the governing body.
The conditions upon which aid is given by the Boroughs are the same as in the case of County Councils (see p. ).
(a.) Representation on Governing Body or Management. Two Boroughs, Manchester and Sheffield, comply with the section of the Technical Instruction Act which requires local bodies to be represented on the governing bodies of the schools they aid, but they make no general stipulation as to the number of their representatives. At Walsall the Borough Council elect the majority of the members of the committee of management. At Hull the representatives of the Town Council are " in the proportion named in the Technical Instruction Act," and at Newcastle representation is stated to be "in accordance with "the condition contained" in the Act.
Brighton and Huddersfield require three representatives; at Chester City Councillors must constitute half of the governing body. Bristol does not appear to claim representation unless capital grants are made, and at Liverpool the City Council may be either directly represented on the governing body or may appoint a visitor for any school aided.
(b.) Subjects of Instruction.
Huddersfield, Liverpool, Walsall, and Stockport are the only County Boroughs which lay down conditions under this head, and in the case of Stockport and Walsall, the schools aided are the Municipal Technical Schools which are under the direct management of the Technical Instruction Committees.
At Huddersfield the subjects required are those sanctioned by the Science and Art Department and any others which fall within the terms of the Technical Instruction Act. At Liverpool "aid is given in consideration of a curriculum, including science, "art, and commercial subjects, such as will prepare students to "enter upon a technical or commercial career." The curriculum
of the Stockport Technical School includes the subjects required in an organised science school, with commercial and domestic subjects in addition.
(c.) Inspection and Examination.
The majority of County Boroughs make no provision for the examination or inspection of secondary schools. Chester and Liverpool form the only exceptions to this rule. The examining bodies selected by the City Council of Chester are the Science and Art Department, the City and Guilds of London Institute, and the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes. At Liverpool, schools must be open at all times for inspection by any person authorised by the Technical Instruction Sub-Committee. Arrangements are also being made for the external examination or inspection of schools. At Stockport, examinations are conducted by the Science and Art Department and by special commercial examiners appointed by the Technical Instruction Committee.
(d.) Appointment of Teachers.
The appointment of teachers is left entirely in the hands of the governing bodies, except at Liverpool, where the qualifications of teachers are subject to the approval of the Technical Instruction Sub-Committee, and at Bristol, where the science masters at the Grammar School and at the Redland High School for Girls are actually appointed by the City Council.
(e.) Fees and Charges.
The only condition made by a County Borough as to fees, is that in force in Bristol, and then the City Council does not interfere with any charges made, but merely reserves to itself six free studentships to be held at the Grammar School or at the Redland High School for Girls. At Liverpool there is an understanding that fees are not to be lowered, in consequence of the receipt of grants, but that grants are to be utilised" for the improvement of education."
(f) Other Conditions.
At Huddersfield, the grants made to the Longwood Grammar School may only be applied in maintaining evening classes for technical instruction. At Hull one half of the whole grant must be expended in the purchase of apparatus, and both here and at Southampton, accounts must be rendered showing the manner in which the grant has been expended.