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as that of the Sánchi casket, but with the important addition of the name of the missionary's father.

Sapurisasa Koti-PUTASA, KÁSAPA-GOTASA, savahemavatá

chariyasa. (Relics) of the emancipated son of Koti, KÁSAPA-GOTA, the

spiritual teacher of the whole Hemavanta."

From this inscription we learn that Kásapa was also known by the patronymic of Koti-PUTRA.

8. But there was another missionary companion of Majhima and Kásapa whose labours in the Hemawanta region are recorded on a crystal casket which was found in No. 2 Tope at Sonári. * The legend is

Sapurisasa GOTI-PUTASI Hemavatasa Dadabhisarasa dáyádasa.

(Relics) of the emancipated Goti-PUTRA, the relation (of the faith] amongst the Dadabhisaras of the Hemawanta.

Dárdabhisára is the hilly country lying on both banks of the Indus, to the west of Kashmir. Dardu was on the right bank, and Abhisára (the present Hazára) on the left bank of the river. The meaning of dáyáda (literally son, offspring, relative) is best illustrated by the following anecdote from the Maláwanso.1

9. When Asoka had dedicated his son Mahendra and his daughter Sanghamitrá to the religion of

* See Plate XXIV. Inscription on No. 1 Box.
Mahawanso, p. 36.

Buddha, he inquired from the arhats_“ Lords ! whose acts of pious bounty to the Buddhist religion have been the greatest?” The crafty Mogaliputra answered with ready wit,“ Ruler of Men! a greater benefactor to the faith than thou art can only be called a benefactor, but he who dedicates a son or daughter to the ministry of our religion, that person is more than a benefactor' (dáyako), he is a 'relation (dáyáda) of the faith.”” GOTI-PUTRA had therefore earned the title of dáyáda, or “relation of the faith" by the ordination of one of his children to the Buddhist religion.

10. It seems strange that Gotiputra, who was so famous amongst his contemporaries for the success of his missionary labours, should not be mentioned in the Mahawanso. But I have a suspicion that both himself and the scene of his labours are mentioned in the Commentary. Mr. Turnour gives Kassapo, Mulikadevo, Dhandhabinasso, and Sahassadewo, as the name of the four theros or sthóviras who accompanied Majjhima to the Hemawanta country. One of these, therefore, must be the missionary to Abhisára, unless the patronymic Gotiputra has been omitted as superfluous; for I propose to read the barbarous Dhandhabinasso as Dardabhisára, and to insert Gotiputra as the name of the missionary who was deputed to that country. I should be inclined to identify Gotiputra either with Múlikádewo, or with Sahasadewo, were it not that the text of the Maháwanso particularly mentions four theros (chatuhi therehi) as the com

panions of Majjhimo. It is indeed possible to read Dadabhisára as the missionary's name; but as the name of the country, Hemavata, is placed between Gotiputra and Dardabhisara, it seems much more probable that the latter is intended for the name of the well-known country of Dardu and Abhisara.

11. The name of the other Arhats, whose relics have been found in company with those of Majjhima, Kasapa, and Gotiputra, will be found in the account of thediscoveries made in the Topes at Sanchi and Sonári.*

12. The proselytizing zeal of Asoka is the more worthy of record, as it anticipated by nearly three centuries one of the most characteristic institutions of the early Christian Church. Though his notions of a Supreme Being were of a less lofty and of a more indistinct nature than those of the Christian, yet the Buddhist Prince was imbued with the same zealous wish for the propagation of his faith, and with the same good will and brotherly love towards all mankind. He was especially desirous that all men should be brought into the right way; but he was content to propagate his own faith by persuasion and by argument, and to pray for all those who differed from him in religion, with the hope that his example might perhaps induce some to labour for their own everlasting salvation.t

13. Like the great Constantine, the Indian King was doomed to learn the guilty passion of his Queen for the most promising of his sons; but, more fortunate than the Roman Emperor, Asoka was saved from the pain of condemning his own child. The Queen, Tishya Rakshitá, was enraged by the beautiful-eyed Kunála’s rejection of her overtures, and meditated revenge. An opportunity soon occurred by the deputation of Kunála to Taxila to quell another revolt. Through the Queen's influence (but unknown to the King), a royal order, sealed with the King's signet, was sent to the Taxilans to put out those beautiful eyes which had excited the Queen's love for Kunala. The people hesitated, but obeyed; and the unfortunate Kunála, guided by his faithful wife, Kanchanamálá, took his dreary way to the King's court at Pátaliputra. When Asoka saw his beloved son, his anger was inflamed against the Queen, and in spite of Kunála's entreaties for mercy, she was made over to the torturers to be burned to death. Such is the legend which the Buddhists relate of their king and his favourite son ;* but as they add that Kunála was restored to sight on account of his piety, we may perhaps conclude that the Queen's evil intentions were not fulfilled. Asoka died in the year 222 B. C. after a long and prosperous reign of forty-one years, including the four years that elapsed between his accession and his inauguration. As he was forty-five years old when he was crowned in B. C. 259, he lived to the good old age of fourscore and two years.

* See Plates XX. and XXIV. + Eastern inscription of Delhi Pillar.

* Burnouf's Buddhisme Indien, pp. 409-413.

CHAPTER XI.

RISE AND FALL OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS.

1. AFTER the death of Asoka, the wide dominions of the Maruyas were divided amongst several of his descendants. The whole of Central India, with the royal metropolis of Pátaliputra, fell to his son Sujasas, or, according to others, to Sampadi, the son of Kunála.* Kashmir was seized by Jaloka, another son of Asoka, who reverted to the Brahmanical faith; Kunála established himself in the Panjâb; and a fourth son, whom the Burmese call Rahanman, became king of Ava.f But though India was thus politically dismembered, it was strongly united in the bands of one common faith. The large monastic establishments instituted by Asoka, possessed all the learning and much of the wealth of the land. Their influence was everywhere superior to the power of the king; and the people deposed and accepted their monarchs at the bidding of the monks. The power

• Burnouf's Buddhisme Indien, p. 430.
+ Prinsep's Useful Tables.

See the Mahawanso, for several instances.

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